Paper, Flesh and Bone: An Exploration of Giants’ Lives in Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Britain

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Figure 1: ‘Poster advertising the tallest man in the world, Henry Winkelmeier’, 19th century ephemera, Wellcome Collection, Wellcome Library, London, https://wellcomecollection.org/works/xsbq5aur, last accessed 9th November 2018.

The eighteenth and nineteenth century saw an explosion in freak show performers and exhibitions. Anyone deemed ‘out of the ordinary’ had the potential to be displayed and exhibited, including giants. These giants performed to earn a living, yet whilst previous work by historians’ paint giants as passive performers who were exploited by entertainment managers and the medical profession both during their lives and after death, there is considerable archival material suggesting that whilst gigantism and acromegaly, (the diseases to which they owed their staggering height), did influence a giant’s decision to perform, their medical condition only had a negative impact after their death.

Using the rapidly changing and highly influential medium of advertising, giants and their showmen exaggerated the height of the giant and created a celebrity persona that appealed to audiences. Austrian giant Henry Winkelmeier, (1860-1887), performed frequently at the London Pavillion. One such performance, advertised on a poster in 1887, shows him dressed in a top hat and tails, towering over a ceremonial soldier.[1] He was also marketed as ‘The Tallest Man in the World.’[2]  This exaggeration of height via the visual comparison of a giant and a tall soldier that symbolised the health of the nation, and a declaration that he was in fact the tallest man to exist, demonstrate that those promoting giants used advertising to aggrandise their status. In addition, creating a demand for their performances by exaggerating a giant’s height and their popularity, giants and their showmen made a profit that then gave giants the autonomy to avoid financial hardship. The Swedish giant Daniel Cajanus, (1704-1749), informed the Daily Advertiser in 1744 that he was on the brink of death, despite only having a fever.[3] His subsequent performances were sold out- he used his illness to create a demand for his performance. Due to stunts such as this, Cajanus retired the same year, and reportedly spent 2,800 Netherland Antillean Guilders on lodgings in North Holland.[4]

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Figure 2: Giantess Anna Swan’s marriage to Captain Marten van Buren, 1871′, Wood engraving, 1871, Wellcome Collection, Wellcome Library, London, https://wellcomecollection.org/works/vabbg6mx, last accessed 9th November 2018.

The performances that giants and their showmen advertised so meticulously not only made money for the performer, but also reinforced middle class values to the emerging working class. Clothing, positioning, and conduct on stage reflected the separate spheres theory dominant in Georgian and Victorian society – an ideology that limited women to domestic roles in the home and child-rearing, and men to work and public duty.  Giants presented their abnormal height in conjunction with Georgian and Victorian values such as the notions of femininity and masculinity, marriage and the nuclear family; the Nova Scotian giantess Anna Swan, (1846-1888) performed in traditional female Victorian dress, despite her height, whilst two giants, Mr and Mrs Patrick O’Brien performed with their son Brian O’Brien, highlighting the importance of marriage and family. The juxtaposition of the values and their height, suggested to the audience that no one was exempt from adhering to social norms.

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Figure 3: Giant Charles Byrne receiving guests. Etching by John Kay, 1794. Wellcome Collection, Wellcome Library, London, https://wellcomecollection.org/works/z4eyvur4, last accessed 9th November 2018.

After a giant’s death, their body was monopolised by the medical profession and demanded to perform, albeit under different circumstances. Against a backdrop of teaching cadaver shortages and without the protection of the 1832 Anatomy Act, the bodies of eighteenth century giants were pursued, stolen and studied by the medical profession in search of a medical discovery. Perhaps the most famous example of this is Irish giant Charles Byrne (1761-1783). After his death he wished to be thrown into the sea to avoid dissection, yet Byrne’s friends were bribed by the physician John Hunter, who wanted his body for examination and display. After boiling his body to bones to examine the giant’s physiology, Byrne now resides in a glass case in the Hunterian museum. Previous to this, the body of giant Cornelius McGrath (1736-1760), was dissected in front of an audience at Trinity College Dublin. Therefore, whilst satisfying medical curiosity, their bodies were also displayed to the public, both at lectures and behind glass cases in museums.

A close study of many eighteenth and nineteenth century giants therefore reveals a much more complex world than previously acknowledged. With the help of advertising and show fees, giants were able to live an autonomous life, whilst still enforcing middle class values on their paying, middle class audience. Yet whilst they lived autonomous lives, this autonomy was stripped from them after their death. Giants did their best to avoid dissection and display, yet many ended up in the hands of the medical profession or museum curators.

 

References:

[1] ‘Herr Winkelmeier, London Pavillion, Piccadilly,’ 1887, Evanion 245, Evanion Collection, The British Library.

[2] Ibid.

[3] Anon, ‘News’ The Daily Advertiser, 13th June, 1744.

[4] J. Bondeson, Freaks: The Pig Faced Lady of Manchester Square and Other Medical Marvels, (Great Britain; Tempus Publishing, 2006), pp. 145-147.

 

*All images used under the Creative Commons License (CC BY 4.0), taken from the Wellcome Collection’s free online image library.

Acknowledging His Last Wishes: Charles Byrne, The Irish Giant

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Etching of Irish Giant Charles Byrne by J. Kay, 1794, Wellcome Collection, Wellcome Library, https://wellcomecollection.org/works/z4eyvur4?query=charles+byrne 

Charles Byrne, otherwise known as the Irish Giant, died aged 22 in 1783. During his life he exhibited himself around the United Kingdom, attracting the attention of the public and the medical profession. Whilst the public, fascinated by his towering height, enjoyed his performances, the medical profession was intent on studying his body. They believed that his body held the key to understanding pituitary gigantism and were willing to procure his body by any means possible.

Fast forward to 1783, Charles Byrne died at home. Knowing of the medical professions’ obsession with his body, he made arrangements prior to his death to have his body thrown into the Irish sea in a lead coffin. Medical men couldn’t possibly procure his body then, could they?

Wrong! Enter John Hunter, prevalent surgeon and anatomist. He had been looking for an opportunity to study gigantism, (and complete his burgeoning private collection) – Charles Byrne’s death was his dream come true.

Hunter bribed Byrne’s fisherman friends was alcohol and £500 in exchange for them delivering the body to his London residence.[1] Once in his residence, Hunter boiled Byrne’s bones in a pot and hid them for three years in order to avoid suspicion.[2]

Byrne’s bones have been on display at the Hunterian since its opening in 1800, yet its current refurbishment closures have reignited calls for Byrne’s bones to be buried in the Irish Sea.

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Photomechanical print Charles Byrne’s skeleton displayed next to Crachani the Sicilan Dwarf at the Hunterian Museum, Wellcome Collection, Wellcome Library, https://wellcomecollection.org/works/rvgcd3k6?query=irish+giant

I fully support this campaign, and my reasons for this are two-fold. The study of giant’s bones, including Byrne’s, has led to the discovery of the causes of gigantism. Neurosurgeon Harvey Cushing examined Byrne’s skeleton in 1909, and determined that he had died due to a pituitary adenoma – brain tumour.[3] Since this research, pituitary gigantism has been identified as a medical condition and has aided the diagnosis and treatment of the condition. Byrne’s body is no longer needed for medical research. Today it is simply a museum exhibit – performing just as Byrne did when he was alive. 

Perhaps on an even more human level, it is clear from newspaper obituaries published after his death, that Byrne wanted to be buried at sea and evade capture by physicians:

 

“In his last moments (it has been said), he requested that his ponderous

remains might be thrown into the sea, in order that his bones might be

placed out of the reach of the chirurgical fraternity.”[4]

 

As Byrne’s personal correspondence is not available to historians saved, we cannot be 100% sure that he expressed these wishes in the above way. Yet it is clear from the actions of his friends – they did throw a coffin into the Irish Sea, (albeit without Byrne’s body) – that he wanted to save his body from dissection.

As campaigners are suggesting, now is the perfect time for the Hunterian to review its accession and display of Charles Byrne. Byrne’s body no longer needs to be displayed or studied. It is time to acknowledge and act upon his last wishes.

 

References:

[1] J. Bondeson, A Cabinet of Medical Curiosities, (Itacha; Cornell University Press, 1977), pp. 196-7.

[2] Ibid.

[3] L. Bradley and P. J. Morrison, ‘Giants of the British Isles’, Ulster Medical Journal, 80:1, (2011), p. 31.

[4] Anon, ‘Charles Byrne Obituary’, Gentleman’s Magazine, 1st June 1783, p. 514, taken from W. Moore, The Knife Man, The Extraordinary Life and Times of John Hunter, Father of Modern Surgery, (London; Bantam Press, 2005), p. 314.

 

*All images used under the Creative Commons License (CC BY 4.0), taken from the Wellcome Collection’s free online image library.

The Freaks That Inspired ‘The Greatest Showman’

Starring Hugh Jackman and Zac Efron, ‘The Greatest Showman’ musical delves into the life of 19th century showman P. T. Barnum. Famously known for his management of freak performers and the creation of a successful museum and circus, Barnum worked closely with freaks of all talents and abilities, in turn making a healthy profit. Whilst the musical primarily tells the story of Barnum’s success, it also features a multitude of fictitious freaks, many of whom emulate their real 19th century counterparts. ‘The Greatest Showman’ succeeds in chronically Barnum’s life, (albeit with a little Hollywood glamour and poetic license thrown in), and despite my reservations, empathetically portrays many freak performer’s transition from unemployed social outcasts to respected performers with a degree of financial autonomy.

For those who may love the film but perhaps do not know too much about the real freak show performers and their journey from poverty to autonomy, here just a few freaks similar to those shown in the film.

General Tom Thumb

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Charles S. Stratton, a dwarf known as General Tom Thumb, aged twelve. Lithograph by C. Baugniet, 1844. Wellcome Images, Wellcome Collection, London.

Born Charles Stratton, General Tom Thumb (1838-1883) performed for Barnum’s circus from the age of five, travelling across the globe. He performed primarily on his own until he married fellow dwarf Lavinia Warren in 1863. Thumb reportedly helped to reignite Barnum’s business after his fortunes turned, showing just how lucrative the entertainment industry could be for a freak show performer.

Daniel Lambert

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Daniel Lambert, weighing over fifty stone, aged 36. Coloured etching. Wellcome Images, Wellcome Collection, London.

Daniel Lambert was known for his heavy weight, at his peak his weight was recorded at 52 stone. Originally a gaol keeper, Lambert developed money problems in 1806. To raise money, he exhibited himself to visitors. Whilst only performing for a year, and never for P.T Barnum, Lambert is a fine example of a freak show performer in complete control of his display and earnings.

Bearded Ladies

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Madame Delait, the bearded lady of Plombières, head and shoulders portrait. Photographic postcard by Scherr, 1923. Wellcome Images, Wellcome Collection, London.

‘The Greatest Showman’ features a bearded lady, who becomes the figurehead for Barnum’s show. Whilst portraits of bearded ladies are available, currently little is known about their individual lives. Just as giants strove to be the tallest, bearded ladies strove to have the longest, fullest beard. This would not only increase their fame and publicity, but also their bank balance.

Of course, there are plenty more examples of freak show performers. Performing for both managers and for themselves, these show men and women provided entertainment for many 18th and 19th century spectators. ‘The Greatest Showman’ sheds light on a few of these entrepreneurial characters, who used their disability or perceived abnormality to support themselves in an otherwise tough environment.

*Featured image: ‘Show Bill, Barnum and Bailey’s show’, Wellcome Images, Wellcome Collection, London.

*All images used under the Creative Commons License (CC BY 4.0), with permission from the Wellcome Collection, London.